It was a metropolitan see of the Chaldean Christians.
The battle was the turning-point of the age, and with it the succession of the new Chaldean or Babylonian kingdom was assured.
The discontented appealed to Rome, and the pope (Julius III.) consecrated the Chaldean catholikos.
The prophet's predictions of disaster continued, according to the record, up to the investment of the city by the Chaldean army in 588 (i.-xxiv.); after the fall of the city (586) his tone changed to one of consolation (xxxiii.-xxxix.) - the destruction of the wicked mass accomplished, he turned to the task of reconstruction.
Nebuchadrezzar seems to have been of Chaldean origin.
But Egypt was now at once confronted by the Neo-Babylonian or Chaldean Empire (under Nabopolassar), which, after annihilating Assyria with the help of the Medians, naturally claimed a right to the Mediterranean coast-lands.
In 539 Nabonidus was defeated and Babylon occupied, while, with the Chaldean Empire, Syria and Palestine also became Persian (see JEws).
It is very noteworthy, however, that, while no care was taken to preserve the history of the Chaldean and Persian Empires - and consequently the most confused ideas subsequently arose - the days of the Assyrian supremacy leave a much clearer imprint (cf.
According to the Chaldean Nabonidus (553) all the kings from Gaza to 'the Euphrates assisted in his buildings, and the Chaldean policy generally appears to have been favourable towards faithful vassals.
The newly formed Chaldean power at once recognized in Necho a dangerous rival and Nabopolassar sent his son Nebuchadrezzar, who overthrew the Egyptian forces at Carchemish (605).