On the whole, setting aside the impassable barrier between Greek and Phoenician, other distinctions of race within the island were breaking down through the spread of the Hellenic element, but among the Greek cities themselves the distinction between the Dorian and the Ionian or Chalcidian settlements was still keenly felt.
Etruscan took over the three Greek aspirates, 0, 4), x, in their Chalcidian forms; 0 survives in Umbrian as 0, the others naturally disappear.
Similarly it used 4 and z for the Chalcidian Umbrian borrowed the first, Oscan the second form.
It appears to have belonged to the Eretrian league; hence, perhaps, we may explain the war with Samos, a leading member of the rival Chalcidian league in the reign of King Amphicrates (Herod.
That it took over the whole Chalcidian alphabet is rendered probable by the survival in Umbrian and Oscan, its daughter alphabets, of forms which are not found in Etruscan itself.
The island was perhaps occupied by Greek settlers even before Cumae; its Eretrian and Chalcidian inhabitants abandoned it about Soo B.C. owing to an eruption, and it is said to have been deserted almost at once by the greater part of the garrison which Hiero I.
From this form the transition is simple to the rounded C, which is generally found in the same localities as the pointed form, but is more widely spread, occurring in Arcadia and on Chalcidian vases of the 6th century B.e., in Rhodes and Megara with their colonies in Sicily.
Which the Chalcidian Greeks used in the 6th century B.C. for may be derived, according to the most widely accepted theory, from a primitive form of Samech, which is recorded only in the abecedaria of the Chalcidian colonies in Italy.
The Etruscan alphabet, like the Latin, was of Chalcidian origin.
Pp. 17 ff.), which appears in no other Italic nor in any Chalcidian inscription, though it survived longer in Etruscan and Venetic use.