Tramway lines were in operation in Bogota, Barranquilla and Cartagena in 1907.
As a naval station, Cartagena suffered severely in 1898 from the maritime disasters of the SpanishAmerican War; and its commerce was much affected when, at the beginning of the same year, Porman, or Portman, a mining village on a well-sheltered bay about 11 m.
The industrial and commercial progress of Cartagena was much hindered, during the first half of the 19th century, by the prevalence of epidemic diseases, the abandonment of the arsenal, and rivalry with the neighbouring port of Alicante.
From Cartagena the principal exports are metallic ores, esparto grass, wine, cereals and fruit.
In 1840 the province of Cartagena had seceded, and the new president had hardly taken office before Panama and Veragua also declared themselves independent, under the title of the State of the Isthmus of Panama.
The largest of these islands is Baru, lying immediately south of the entrance to Cartagena harbour.
Its sanitary condition, though still defective, was improved by the drainage of the adjacent Almajar Marsh; and after 1870, when the population had dwindled to about 26,000, Cartagena advanced rapidly in size and wealth.
South, protects Cartagena from the violence of wind and waves.
The population of Cartagena 'is largely composed of blacks and mixed races, which form the predominant type on the lowland plains of northern Colombia.
In 1508 Alonso de Ojeda obtained the government of the coast of South America from Cabo de la Vela to the Gulf of Darien; Ojeda landed at Cartagena in 1510, and sustained a defeat from the natives, in which his lieutenant, Juan de la Cosa, was killed.