The French revolution of 1830 had its echo in Italy, and Carbonarism raised its head in Parma, Modena and Romagna the following year.
In France, Carbonarism began to take root about 1820, and was more thoroughly organized than in Italy.
The Austrians retired from Romagna and the Marches in July 1831, but Carbonarism and anarchy having broken out again, they returned, while the French occupied Ancona.
In October 1820 Pellico was arrested on the charge of carbonarism and conveyed to the Santa Margherita prison.
On the contrary, Carbonarism flourished and spread to other parts of Italy, and countless lodges sprang up, their adherents comprising persons in all ranks of society, including, it is said, some of royal blood, who had patriotic sentiments and desired to see Italy free from foreigners.