In a large colliery where the shafts are situated near the centre of the field, and the workings extend on all sides, both to the dip and rise, the drawing roads for the coal may be of three different kinds - (r) levels driven at right angles to the dip, suitable for horse roads, (2) rise ways, known as jinny roads, jig-brows, or up-brows, which, when of sufficient slope, may be used as self-acting planes, i.e.
The district is rich in minerals, and has large collieries, and a colliery company's institute; iron goods are manufactured.
Barry owes its seaport to the determination of a number of colliery owners to secure an alternative port to Cardiff, with an independent railway to it from the coalfields.
Hoisting buckets or kibbles are employed for small (From The Colliery Engineer, May 1897.) FIG.
The conclusions arrived at by the royal commission of 1891, which may be taken as generally representative of the views of British colliery engineers, are as follows: - I.
The size and form of colliery shafts vary in different districts.
There have been several instances of this being done in the fiery pits in the Barnsley district, notably at the great explosion at the Oaks colliery in 1866, when 360 lives were lost.
In connexion with the Warora colliery there is a fire-clay business.
The following works may also be consulted: Books - Bertolio, Coltivazione delle minere (Milan, 1902); Brown, The Organization of Gold Mining Business (Glasgow, 1897); Brough, Mine Surveying (12th ed., London, 1906); Bulman and Redmayne, Colliery Working and Management (London, 1896); Colomer, Exploitation des mines (Paris, 1899); Curle, The Gold Mines of the World (2nd ed., London, 1902); Demanet, Traite d'exploitation des mines de houille (2nd ed., Brussels, vols.
Still they fell far short of the requirements of the district for in 1865 the Taff Vale Railway Company opened a dock of 26 acres under the headland at Penarth, while in 1884 a group of colliery owners, dissatisfied with their treatment at Cardiff, obtained powers to construct docks at Barry which are now 114 acres in extent.