A coastwise cable runs from Para to Montevideo with double cables between Pernambuco and Montevideo.
The exports are chiefly iron; the imports coal; large quantities of wine from Navarre and the Ebro valley are also sent abroad, and the importation of timber of all kinds from Scandinavia and Finland, and coastwise from Asturias, is of great importance.
Natal is the starting-point of the Natal and Nova Cruz railway, and is a port of call for coastwise steamers, which usually anchor outside the bar.
In 1908 the tonnage of ships entering the harbour was (including coastwise trade) 1,975,457; that of ships clearing the harbour 1,993,227.
Of the whole amount of coal received coastwise at English and Welsh ports (about 132 million tons), London received considerably over one-half (nearly 8 million tons in 1903).
The constitution of Brazil provides that the coastwise trade shall be carried on by national vessels, but this provision did not go into effect until 1896.
The total tonnage of vessels entered and cleared coastwise was as follows: (1890), 47,73 8, 612 entered, Owing to an alteration in classification these figures are not strictly comparable with those for 1905.
The main railway from Belgrade to Constantinople skirts the Maritza and Ergene valleys, and there is an important branch line down the Maritza valley to Dedeagatch, and thence coastwise to Salonica.
Trade with the Philippine Islands and the Hawaiian Islands and Alaska is important, while the coastwise trade with Pacific ports exceeds all the rest in tonnage.
Vessels entered and cleared (foreign and colonial trade): - In the coastwise trade, in 1881, 38,953 vessels of 4,545,904 tons entered; in 18 95, 43,7 0 4 vessels of 6,555,618 tons; but these figures include vessels trading within the Thames estuary (ports of London, Rochester, Colchester and Faversham), which later returns do not.