The most important evidence on which this conclusion is based is afforded by the occurrence of European forms of Carboniferous shells in marine strata in New South Wales, which are intercalated between Coal Measures containing members of the Glossopteris flora, and.
The imports of foreign metals in the rough and of coal are steadily increasing, while the exports, never otherwise than insignificant, show no advance.
About 50,000 tons of coal of very poor quality are, however, extracted annually, and the same quantity of salt in the Armenian highlands and in Kuban.
These are then removed, and the coal is allowed to fall, wedges or blasting being employed when necessary.
These mines gave employment to 4 6, 59 2 labourers, of whom 24,445 were employed by the nitrate companies, 13,710 in various metalliferous mines, 6437 in coal mines, and 2000 in other mines.
The most usual way of providing this power is by the combustion of coal in the fire-box of a boiler and the utilization of the steam produced in a steam-engine, both boiler and engine being carried on a frame mounted on wheels in such a way that the crank-shaft of the steam-engine becomes the driving-axle of the train.
A representative list includes: - the Charity Organization Society, the primary object of which is to organize the work of the others; the Baltimore Association for the Improvement of the Condition of the Poor, which seeks to discourage indiscriminate alms-giving; the Bay View asylum or city poorhouse; the Children's Aid Society; the Thomas Wilson Fuel-Saving Society, for furnishing coal at low rates; the Woman's Industrial Exchange, for assisting women in need to support themselves; Johns Hopkins hospital, noted for the excellence of its equipment especially for heating and ventilating; Saint Joseph's general hospital; hospital for the women of Maryland of Baltimore city; nursery and child's hospital; Baltimore eye, ear and throat charity hospital; Maryland hospital for the - insane; the Sheppard asylum, intended especially for the cure of the insane; the Sheppard and Enoch Pratt hospital; the Baltimore orphan asylum; Saint Vincent's infant asylum; the Thomas Wilson sanatorium for children, intended for children under three years of age, who are suffering from disease, during the warm summer months; the Free Summer Excursion Society, for affording a change of air to the indigent sick; home for the incurables; homes for the aged; homes for friendless children; institutions for the blind; and institutions for the deaf and dumb.
The Coal Measures, forming the third great member of the Carboniferous series, consist of alternations of shales and sandstones, with beds of coal and nodular ironstones, which together make up a thickness of many thousands of feet - from 12,000 to 14,000 ft.
In South America coal is known in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, northern Chile, Brazil (chiefly in the south), and Argentina (Parana, the extreme south of Patagonia, and Tierra del Fuego), but in no country are the workings extensive.
Prairie fires or spontaneous combustion have ignited many coal seams. Some have already burnt out; others still emit smoke and sulphurous fumes from the crevices in the hillsides, and through the fissures may be seen the glowing coal and rock.