Full of reforming zeal, he issued ordinances against begging, extravagance and gambling; forbade judges to accept presents from suitors; built new courts of justice; prohibited the sale of offices, maintaining the financial equilibrium by reducing expenses; and, an almost revolutionary step, struck at the root of nepotism, in a bull of 1692 ordaining that thenceforth no pope should grant estates, offices or revenues to any relative.
The live stock consisted of one bull and four cows, a stallion and three mares, some sheep, goats, pigs and a large number of fowls.
On the 26th of August the daring flank march of Jackson's corps ended at Manassas Station (see Bull Run).
He afterwards reckoned the Leipzig disputation (June-July 1519) and the burning of the papal bull (December 1520) as the beginning of the Reformation.
In vain the papal bull was revoked, in vain the king issued a proclamation commanding the peasantry to return to their homes under pain of death.
Precisely as to-day inventions are guarded by patents, and literary and artistic creations by the law of copyright, so, at that period, the papal bull and the protection of the Roman Church were an effective means for ensuring that a country should reap where she had sown and should maintain the territory she had discovered and conquered by arduous efforts; while other claimants, with predatory designs, were warned back by the ecclesiastical censorship. In the Vatican the memory of Alexander VI.
As senior officer he took command on the field, and at Bull Run (Manassas) (q.v.) won the first important Confederate victory.
On the 20th of October 1349 Clement published a bull commanding the bishops and inquisitors to stamp out the growing heresy, and in pursuance of the pope's orders numbers of the sectaries perished at the stake or in the cells of the inquisitors and the episcopal justices.
It found a spokesman in the vigorous Gregory of Heimburg, who accused the pope of issuing the bull so that he and his cardinals might conveniently pillage Germany unhampered by the threat of a council.
The papacy in the universal Church; while political Catholicism had its beginnings in antiquity and found very definite expression, for instance, in the bull Unam sanctam of Boniface VIII.