The Scottish bowmen followed up this advantage, and the fight became general; the English horse, crowded into too narrow a space, were met by the steady resistance of the Scottish pikemen, who knew, as Bruce had told them truly, that they fought for their country, their wives, their children, and all that freemen hold dear.
The former route appeared to be chosen by the English, and Bruce stationed his army in a position where it was defended by a cleugh, or ravine of the Bannockburn, and by two morasses between which was a practicable but narrow neck of firm land.
He was awarded the Janssen medal by the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1894, the Rumford medal by the American Academy in 1902, the Draper medal in 1903, a gold medal by the Royal Astronomical Society in 1904, the Bruce medal by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in 1916, and the Janssen medal by the Astronomical Society of France in 1917.
He bitterly resented the concession of independence to Scotland by the treaty of Northampton of 1328, and the death of Robert Bruce in 1329 gave him a chance of retrieving his position.
In 1867 he was elected member for West Durham in the Dominion parliament, and for South Bruce in the provincial legislature, in which he became leader of the Liberal opposition two years later.
Newton is a burgh or barony of very ancient creation, the charter of which is traditionally said to have been granted by Robert Bruce in favour of forty-eight of the inhabitants who had distinguished themselves at Bannockburn.
Clackmannan Tower is now a picturesque ruin, but at one time played an important part in Scottish history, and was the seat of a lineal descendant of the Bruce family after the failure of the male line.
Moving out from the Torwood forest, Bruce arrayed his force so as to guard either the Roman road through St Ninians, or the way through the Carse, which was then studded with marshes and small lakes.
The merit of Bruce is that he did not despise the lesson.
The population, estimated by James Bruce in 1770 at 10,000 families, had dwindled in 1905 to about 7000.