Born at Rappoltsweiler, in Alsace on the 13th of, January 1635, trained by a devout godmother, who used books of devotion like Arndt's True Christianity, accustomed to hear the sermons of a pastor who preached the Bible more than the Lutheran creeds, Spener was early convinced of the necessity of a moral and religious reformation of the German Church.
It is the work of a man familiar with the Bible and theology, and no less acquainted with the inscriptions, monuments, types and landscapes of Syria.
Some later philosophers, especially of the 17th century, misled by the resemblance between Biblical narratives and ancient myths, came to the conclusion that the Bible contains a pure, the myths a distorted, form of an original revelation.
The last book of the New Testament bears in Greek the title 'A1roKfXv,cs Iceavvov, and is frequently referred to as the Apocalypse of John, but in the English Bible it appears as the Revelation of St John the Divine (see Revelation).
Among his principal works are: - Sacred Hermeneutics Developed and Applied (1843), rewritten and republished as A 'Treatise on Biblical Criticism (1852), Lectures on Ecclesiastical Polity (1848), An Introduction to the New Testament (1848-1851), The Hebrew Text of the Old Testament Revised (1855), Introduction to the Old Testament (1862), On a Fresh Revision of the Old Testament (1873), The Canon of the Bible (1877), TheDoctrine of Last Things in the New Testament (1883), besides translations of the New Testament from Von Tischendorf's text, Gieseler's Ecclesiastical History (1846) and Fiirst's Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon.
Descartes occasionally had not scrupled to interpret the Scriptures according to his own tenets, while still maintaining, when their letter contradicted him, that the Bible was not meant to teach the sciences.
Among his publications are Characters and Characteristics of William Law (1893); Bunyan Characters (3 vols., 1894); Samuel Rutherford (1894); An Appreciation of Jacob Behmen (1895) Lancelot Andrewes and his Private Devotions (1895); Bible Characters (7 vols., 1897); Santa Teresa (1897); Father John of Cronstadt (1898); An Appreciation of Browne's Religio Medici (1898); Cardinal Newman, An Appreciation (1901).
The higher reason only has unconditional authority, and the Bible must justify itself before its tribunal; we find the history of divine revelation and its fulfilment in the Bible alone, and reason bids us regard the Bible as the only authority and canon in matters of religious belief.
The intimacy with the Bible which is manifest in the pages of the Christian Year; and the unobtrusive felicity with which Biblical sentiments and language are introduced have done much to endear these poems to all Bible readers.
He then took a bible from the priest's hands, and, after looking at it, threw it violently from him, and began a more impassioned speech, in which he exposed the designs of the Spaniards, and upbraided them with the cruelties they had perpetrated.