He was a saint up till the time of Benedict XIV., who read Photius on Clement, believed him, and struck the Alexandrian's name out of the calendar.
As Johannes Gratianus he had earned a high reputation for learning and probity, and in 1045 he bought the Roman pontificate from his godson Benedict IX.
The chief chroniclers of his reign are William of Newburgh, Ralph de Diceto, the so-called Benedict of Peterborough, Roger of Hoveden, Robert de Torigni (or de Monte), Jordan Fantosme, Giraldus Cambrensis, Gervase of Canterbury; all printed in the Rolls Series.
On an embassy to Benedict XIII.
At the outbreak of the War of Independence he abandoned the study of medicine to enter the American army, and he served with General Benedict Arnold in the Quebec campaign and was later under General Horatio Gates, acting from May 1777 to March 1778 as adjutant-general of the Northern Department.
When used by St Benedict in the singular number it seems (according to the commentator Menard) to denote the abbot himself.
Fort Ticonderoga, the key to the passage of Lakes George and Champlain to Canada, was surprised and, taken on the 10th of May by a small band under Colonel Ethan Allen, while Colonel Benedict Arnold headed an expedition through the Maine woods to effect the capture of Quebec, where Sir Guy Carleton commanded.
The war which ensued between the pope and the king of France ended in the complete defeat of the papacy, which was reduced to impotence (1303), and though the storm ceased during the nine months' pontificate of Benedict XI., the See of St Peter recovered neither its normal equilibrium Papacy nor its traditional character.
Except for the statement in Bede that the French artisans, sent by Benedict Biscop, taught their craft to the English, there is at present no evidence of glass having been made in England between the Roman period and the 13th century.
These clerks, whose ordination was regarded as invalid by Hincmar and his adherents, were condemned in 8J3 at the council of Soissons, and the decisions of that council were confirmed in 855 by Pope Benedict III.