Since 1851 it has been known that all sea-water has an alkaline reaction, and Torniie defined the alkalinity of sea-water as the amount of carbonic acid which is necessary to convert the excess of bases into normal carbonate.
The amino derivatives are stable bases which readily yield substitution derivatives when acted upon by the halogen elements.
The bases are either grouted with cement, or bolted to the foundations, but where cast column bases rest on masonry piers or footings any considerable grouting is not advisable.
A feature of interest in connexion with the phylogeny of cycads is the presence of long hairs clothing the scale-leaves, and forming a cap on the summit of the stem-apex or attached to the bases of petioles; on some fossil cycadean plants these outgrowths have the form of scales, and are identical in structure with the ramenta (paleae) of the majority of ferns.
The monocotyledons, one of the primary divisions of angiosperms, typically possess large Monocoty- leaves with broad Iedonous sheathing bases containType.
Such material, it is suspected, may form the massive bases on which barrier or fringing or atoll reefs are built up.
They are the broken bases of drinking vessels containing inscriptions, emblems, domestic scenes and portraits etched in gold leaf.
The Conseil .suprieur devotes its attention to all questions touching the fighting efficiency of the fleet, naval bases and arsenals and- coast defence.
The numerous male catkins are generally arranged in dense whorls around the bases of the young shoots; the anther-scales, surmounted by a crest-like appendage, shed their abundant pollen by longitudinal slits; the two ovules at the base of the inner side of each fertile cone-scale develop into a pair of winged seeds, which drop from the opening scales when mature - as in the allied genera.
Appendages of 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th pairs similar in form; their basal segments in contact in the middle line and immovably welded, except those of the 3rd pair, which have been pushed aside so that the bases of the 2nd and 4th pairs are in contact with each other.