The seaports wrested at the same period from the Saracens along the Spanish and Barbary coasts became important Genoese colonies, whilst in the Levant, on the shores of the Black Sea, and along the banks of the Euphrates were erected Genoese fortresses' of great strength.
In this vast region and in all the towns of Barbary many of the Andalusians settled.
The main authorities for the early history of the Barbary states are: - Luis del Marmol Carvajal, Description de Africa (Granada, 1573); Diego de Haedo, Topographia e Historia General de Argel (Valladolid, 1612); and Pere Pierre Dan, Histoire de Barbarie et de ses corsaires (Paris, 1637).
When the United States found that bribing the pirate Barbary states did not secure exemption from their outrages, and was constrained at last to use force, he served against Algiers and Tunis.
The first half of the 17th century may be described as the flowering time of the Barbary pirates.
He entered the navy as midshipman (1799) with his father, Christopher Raymond Perry (1761-1818), a captain in the navy, and saw service against the Barbary pirates.
Under the influence of Berber and Arab tribes, who embraced Mahommedanism, the Hausa advanced in civilization; founded large cities, and developed a considerable trade, not only with the neighbouring countries, but, via the Sahara, with the Barbary states.
The papacy of that time believed in the political unity of Islam, in a solidarity - which did not exist - among the Mussulmans of Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt and the Barbary coasts; and if it waited until the year 1095 to carry out this project, it was because the conflict with the Germanic Empire prevented the earlier realization of its dream.
In 1803 he quarrelled with the Bey, was ordered from the country, and returned to the United States to urge American intervention for the restoration of Ahmet Karamanli to the throne of Tripoli, arguing that this would impress the Barbary States with the power of the United States.
Nor did age lessen his energy, for in 1550, when eighty-four years old, he again put to sea to punish the raids of his old enemies the Barbary pirates, but with.