He entered the diplomatic service and acted as political agent for the army of the Danube and the Balkans during the Russo-Turkish War (1877-8).
Joanne, Etats du Danube et des Balkans (Paris, 1895); R.
Miller, The Balkans (London, 1896).
See also P. de Laveleye, La Peninsule des Balkans (Brussels, 1886); V.
Accordingly, the enraged Goths, under their chief Fritigern, streamed across the Balkans into Thrace and the country round Adrianople, plundering, burning and slaughtering as they went.
In the west the northern highlands develop two branches: (I) the Kuren Dagh, stretching through the Great and Little Balkans to the Caspian at Krasnovodsk Bay, (2) the Ala Dagh, forming a continuation of the Binalud Kuh and joining the mountains between Bujnurd and Astarabad, which form part of the Elburz system.
But before marching south he led another expedition across the Balkans into the country now called Bulgaria, and returned to Pella with much spoil but severely wounded in the thigh.
Miller, The Balkans (London, 1896), sketches the history of Bulgaria, Montenegro, Rumania and Servia.
De Laveleye, La Peninsule des Balkans (Brussels, 1886).
On the 4th of January 1878 a Russian army again entered Sofia after the passage of the Balkans by Gourko; the bulk of the Turkish population had previously taken flight.