A branch of bacteriology which offers numerous problems of importance is that which deals with the organisms so common in milk, butter and cheese.
These facts, and the further knowledge that many bacteria never observed as parasites, or as pathogenic forms, produce toxins or poisons as the result of their decompositions and fermentations of organic substances, have led to important results in the applications of bacteriology to medicine.
Experimental pathology has benefited by the use of antiseptic surgery in operations upon animals, and by the adoption of exact methods of recording; while the employment of solid culture media in bacteriology - the product of Koch's fertile genius - is responsible for a great part of the extraordinary development which has taken place in this department of pathological research.
Of this method the rise and wonderful extension of the science of bacteriology also furnished no inconsiderable part.
The Royal Institute for experimental therapeutics (Konigl.Institut fiir experimentelle Therapie), moved to Frankfort in 1899, attracts numerous foreign students, and is especially concerned with the study of bacteriology and serums.
A knowledge of the bacteriology of scrofulous affections of bone and joints, such as caries and gelatinous degeneration, has shown that they also are tubercular diseases - that is to say, diseases due to the presence locally of the tubercle bacillus.
As regards infections, it is not to be supposed that our knowledge of these maladies has been advanced by pathology and bacteriology only.
The bacteriology of the infective diseases (with bibliography) is fully given in the System of Medicine, edited by Clifford Allbutt, (2nd ed., London, 1907).
Though the causal relationship of a bacterium to a disease may be completely established by the methods given, another very important part of bacteriology is concerned with the poisons or toxins formed by bacteria.
And Lond., 1908); Park, Pathogenic Micro-organisms (London, 5906); Sternberg, Manual of Bacteriology (with full bibliography, 2nd ed., New York, 1896); Woodhead, Bacteria and their products (with bibliography, London, 1891).