Government.-Representative government goes back to 1634, and the bicameral legislature to 1644.
The legislature (Standeversammlung) is bicameral - the constitution of the co-ordinate chambers being finally settled by a law of 1868 amending the enactment of 1831.
The controversy ended in the creation of a bicameral legislature in the lower branch of which the claim of the larger states found recognition, while in the upper, the Senate, each state had two votes.
During the colonial period and the early years of statehood the legislature was composed of one house, but the bicameral system was adopted in the constitution of 1790.
The adoption of a bicameral system made it possible to give due recognition to both principles.
Buffalo is governed under an amended city charter of 1896 by which the government is vested in a bicameral city council, and a mayor elected for a term of four years.
In Nova Scotia and Quebec the bicameral system of an upper and lower house is retained; in the other provinces legislation is left to a single representative assembly.
Under the constitution of 1790 the office of governor was restored, the executive council and the council of censors were abolished, and the bicameral legislative system was adopted.
At that crisis, probably convinced him that the cause of moderate reform and the framing of a bicameral constitution on the model of that of England were hopeless.
In 1787 all the states but three had bicameral legislatures-it was therefore natural that the new national government should follow this example, not to add that the division into two branches seems calculated to reduce the chances of reckless haste, and to increase the chances of finding wisdom in a multitude of counsellors.