Bahrein, inhabited chiefly by the Bani'Abd Qais and the Bani Bakr, was largely subject to Persian influence near its coast, and a Persian governor, Sebocht, resided in Hajar, its chief town.
Sailing thence to Sur near Ras el Had, he travelled southward through the country of the Bani bu Ali to the borders of the desert, then turning north-west up the Wadi Betha through a fertile, wellwatered country, running up to the southern slopes of J.
The Bani Nadir were expelled, the Bani Quraiza slaughtered.
The Bani Hanifa returned to Islam.
Three or four days' journey east and southeast of Besha are the encampments of the Bani Kahtan, one of the most ancient tribes of Arabia; their pastures extend into the adjoining district of Nejd, where they breed camels in large numbers, as well as a few horses.
In his appointments to governorships and other offices, as well as in his distribution of spoil, Othman showed a marked preference for the members of his own tribe the Koreish (Quraish) and the members of his own family the Bani Omayya (Umayya).
Jarir of another branch of the Bani Tamim lived in Irak and courted the favour of Hajjaj, its governor.
Here he waited two months for reinforcements, and with his Bedouin contingent, strengthened by the adhesion of the Ateba and Bani Khalid tribes, advanced on Shakra in Wushm, which fell in January 1818 after a regular siege.
First he swept down on the Bani Hanifa in Yemama, who with their rival prophet Mosailama (Mosailima) and 40,000 men were in arms. The battle of Yemama (633) was fierce and decisive.
After the Crimean War, a bimetallic currency was adopted, with the le g (franc) of loo bani (centimes) as the unit of value.