Gomberg's triphenyl-methyl play no part in what follows), it is readily seen that the simplest hydrocarbon has the formula CH 4, named methane, in which the hydrogen atoms are of equal value, and which may be pictured as placed at the vertices of a tetrahedron, the carbon atom occupying the centre.
Dalton's idea that elements preferentially combined in equiatomic proportions had as an immediate inference that metallic oxides contained one atom of the metal to one atom of oxygen, and a simple expansion of this conception was that one atom of oxide combined with one atom of acid to form one atom of a neutral salt.
From analyses of water, which he regarded as composed of one atom of hydrogen and one of oxygen, he This dictum was questioned by the researches of H.
The development of the atomic theory and its concomitants - the laws of chemical combination and the notion of atoms and equivalents - at the hands of Dalton and Berzelius, the extension to the modern theory of the atom and molecule, and to atomic and molecular weights by Avogadro, Ampere, Dumas, Laurent, Gerhardt, Cannizzaro and others, have been noted.
If the sources of energy within the atom can be drawn upon, and the phenomena of radio-activity leave no doubt about this, there is here an incalculable source of heat which takes the cogency out of any other calculation respecting the sources maintaining the sun's radiation.
Blagden (Ber.,1900,33,p.2544), who consider that three simultaneous reactions occur, namely, the formation of labile double salts which decompose in such a fashion that the radical attached to the copper atom wanders to the aromatic nucleus; a catalytic action, in which nitrogen is eliminated and the acid radical attaches itself to the aromatic nucleus; and finally, the formation of azo compounds.
Chem., 1888, 2, p. 553), who prepared the four nitromethanes, CH 3 N 2 0, each atom in methane being successively replaced by the nitro-group.
In all cases it is usual to represent substances by formulae which to the best of our knowledge express their molecular composition in the state of gas, and not merely the relative number of atoms which they contain; thus, acetic acid consists of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the proportion of one atom of carbon, two of hydrogen, and one of oxygen, but its molecular weight corresponds to the formula C211402, which therefore is always employed to represent acetic acid.
Intermolecular transformations-migrations of substituent groups from one carbon atom to anotherare of fairly common occurrence among oxy compounds at elevated temperatures.
The difficulty that a number of spectroscopic lines seem to involve at least an equal number of electrons may be got over by imagining that the atom may present several positions of equilibrium to the electron, which it may occupy in turn.