The ascospores escape from the asci in various ways, sometimes by a special ejaculation-mechanism.
The asci are borne directly on the mycelium and are therefore fully exposed, being devoid from the beginning of any investment.
B, Asci (thecae) with bilocular spores.
In the Helvellaceae there is no apothecium but a large irregular fruit body which at maturity bears the asci on its surface.
The asci may be derived from the terminal cell of the branches of the ascogenous hyphae, but usually they are derived from the penultimate cell, the tip curving over to form the so-called crozier.
The asci are developed in the large dense fruit bodies (cleistothecia) and the spores escape by the decay of the wall.
In young asci a similar fusion of two nuclei occurs, and also in basidia, in each case the nucleus of the ascus or of the basidium resulting from the fusion subsequently giving rise by division to the nuclei of the ascospores and basidiospores respectively.
These three elements - trichogyne, trichophoric cell, and carpogenic cell - are regarded as the procarp. The spermatia have been shown by Thaxter to fuse with the trichogyne, after which the axial cell below (carpogenic cell) undergoes divisions, and ultimately forms asci containing ascospores, while cells investing this form a perithecium, the whole structure reminding us essentially of the fructification of a Pyrenomycete.
Concerning the second question, the recent investigations of Buchner ascogenous hyphae with their asci represent the sporophyte since they are derived from the fertilized ascogonium.
Solenia, Cyphella - and even simpler cases are met with in Mortierella, where the zygospore is invested by the overgrowth of a dense mat of closely branching hyphae, and in Gymnoascus, where a loose mat of similarly barren hyphae covers in the tufts of asci as they develop.