Of lost works by Archimedes we can identify the following: (I) investigations on polyhedra mentioned by Pappus; (2) Archai, Principles, a book addressed to Zeuxippus and dealing with the naming of numbers on the system explained in the Sand Reckoner; (3) Peri zygon, On balances or levers; (4) Kentrobarika, On centres of gravity; (5) Katoptrika, an optical work from which Theon of Alexandria quotes a remark about refraction; (6) Ephodion, a Method, mentioned by Suidas; (7) Peri sphairopeoia, On Sphere-making, in which Archimedes explained the construction of the sphere which he made to imitate the motions of the sun, the moon and the five planets in the heavens.

The conclusion from these therefore was that the ratio of circumference to diameter is 34 This is a most notable piece of work; the immature condition of arithmetic at the time was the only real obstacle preventing the evaluation of the ratio to any degree of accuracy whatever.5 No advance of any importance was made upon the achievement of Archimedes until after the revival of learning.

Although the heliocentric system is not mentioned in the treatise, a quotation in the Arenarius of Archimedes from a work of Aristarchus proves that he anticipated the great discovery of Copernicus.

View more

If, therefore, the walls of the enclosure held the gas that is directly in contact with them, this equilibrium would be the actual state of affairs; and it would follow from the principle of Archimedes that, when extraneous forces such as gravity are not considered, the gas would exert no resultant force on any body immersed in it.

Lastly, Archimedes is credited with the famous Cattle-Problem enunciated in the epigram edited by G.

He published the first Italian translation of Euclid (1543), and the earliest version from the Greek of some of the principal works of Archimedes (1543).

For revenge, Archimedes devised a fiendish computational problem that involved truly immense numbers.

According to one story, Archimedes was puzzled till one day, as he was stepping into a bath and observed the water running over, it occurred to him that the excess of bulk occasioned by the introduction of alloy could be measured by putting the crown and an equal weight of gold separately into a vessel filled with water, and observing the difference of overflow.

This has been discredited because it is not mentioned by Polybius, Livy or Plutarch; but it is probable that Archimedes had constructed some such burning instrument, though the connexion of it with the destruction of the Roman fleet is more than doubtful.

Lessing' in 1773, which purports to have been sent by Archimedes to the mathematicians at Alexandria in a letter to Eratosthenes.