Athena Polias was the patron-goddess of Pergamum, and the legend combines the ethnological record of the connexion claimed between Arcadia and Pergamum with the usual belief that the hero of the city was son of its guardian deity, or at least of her priestess.
In 1790 a New Arcadia came into being.
Checked the depopulation for a while, but Arcadia suffered severely from the constant quarrels of its Frankish barons (1205-1460).
The conquest of Corinth and Megara was placed a generation later: Arcadia alone claimed to have escaped invasion.
After the withdrawal of the Thebans from Arcadia Mantineia failed to recover its pre-eminence from Megalopolis, with which city it had frequent disputes.
The importance of Arcadia in Greek history was due to its position between Sparta and the Isthmus.
After a chequered existence, internal dissensions caused the dissolution of the Arcadia in 1774.
Robertson Smith considers the sacrifices offered to the wolf-Zeus in Arcadia to have been originally cannibal feasts of a wolf-tribe, who recognized the wolf as their totem.
Thus Arcadia lagged behind the general development of Greece, and its political importance was small owing to chronic feuds between the townships (notably between Mantineia and Tegea) and the readiness of its youth for mercenary service abroad.
During the Hellenistic age Megalopolis stood staunchly by Macedonia; the rest of Arcadia rebelled against Antipater (330, 323) and Antigonus Gonatas (266).