Catalan, which by the reunion of Aragon and the countship of Barcelona in 1137 became the official language of the Aragonese monarchyalthough the kingdom of Aragon, consisting of the present provinces of Saragossa, Huesca and Teruel, has always been Castilian in speechestablished a footing in Italy also, in all parts where the domination of the kings of Aragon extended, viz, in Sicily, Naples, Corsica and Sardinia, but it has not maintained itself here except in a single district of the last-named island (Aighero); everywhere else in Italy, where it was not spoken except by the conquerors, nor written except in the royal chancery, it has disappeared without leaving a trace.
Of England had mediated to make peace, and Charles was liberated on the understanding that he was to retain Naples alone, Sicily being left to the Aragonese; Charles was also to induce his cousin Charles of Valois to renounce for twenty thousand pounds of silver the kingdom of Aragon which had been given to him by Pope Martin IV.
Therefore, when he died in 1458, he bequeathed Naples to his natural son Ferdinand, while Sicily and Aragon passed together to his brother John, and so on to Ferdinand the Catholic. The twenty-three years of Alfonsos reign were the most prosperous and splendid period of South Italian history.
In 1436 it was given by Alfonso of Aragon to Don Giovanni de Caro, baron of Montechiaro.
The river Segura, which falls into the Mediterranean in the neighborhood of Orihuela, a little to the north of Murcia, is as nearly as possible the southern boundary of the Catalan domain; westward the boundary coincides pretty exactly with the political frontier, the provinces of New Castile and Aragon not being at all encroached on.
James concluded a shameful treaty, by which, in exchange for being left undisturbed in Aragon and promised possession of Sardinia and Corsica, he gave up Sicily to the Church, for whom it was to be held by the Angevins (1295).
His diplomatic relations were more extensive than those of any previous sultan, and included Bulgarian, Indian, and Abyssmn.ian potentates, as well as the pope, the king of Aragon and the king of France.
It was not until 1403 that the kings of Aragon were able to conquer the district of Arborea, which, under the celebrated Eleonora (whose code of laws - the so-called Carta de Logu- was famous), offered a heroic resistance.
And Ferdinand of Aragon for the partition of Naples in 1500, was excused as a thing necessary in the interests of the Crusades.
Having been bred in Castile, where the royal authority was, at least in theory, absolute, he showed himself impatient under the checks imposed on him by the fueros, the chartered rights of Aragon and Catalonia.