In the great revolt of the Arabic tribes after the death of Mahomet, and in the invasion of Irak and Syria by the Moslems, the principal generals belonged to them.
It is curious that although we possess a certain number of works on alchemy written in Arabic, and also many Latin treatises that profess to be translated from Arabic, yet in no case is the existence known of both the Arabic and the Latin version.
To regard these letters as ciphers is a precarious hypothesis, for the simple reason that cryptography is not to be looked for in the very infancy of Arabic writing.
The Crusades - a movement which engaged all Europe and brought the East into contact with the West - must necessarily be studied not only in the Latin authorities of Europe and of Palestine, but also in Byzantine, Armenian and Arabic writers.
He was ordained priest in 1797, and in the same year became professor of Arabic in the university, but shortly afterwards was deprived for refusing to take the oath of allegiance to the Cisalpine Republic. In 1803 he was appointed assistant librarian of the institute of Bologna, and soon afterwards was reinstated as professor of oriental languages and of Greek.
Omar's system not only diminished the actual revenue, but largely increased in the cities the numbers of the maula's (clients), mainly Persians, who were weary of their dependency on their Arabic lords, and demanded equal rights for themselves.
Erzerum is a town of great antiquity, and has been identified with the Armenian Garin Kalakh, the Arabic Kalikale, and the Byzantine Theodosiopolis of the 5th century, when it was a frontier fortress of the empire - hence its name Erzen-er-Rum.
The first Arabic translation of the Almagest was made by order of Harun al-Rashid about the year Boo; others followed, and the Caliph Arah al-Mamun built in 829 a grand observatory at astro- Bagdad.
The old view held by Toland and others that the Italian was a translation from the Arabic is demonstrably wrong.
The Syriac verb is remarkable for having entirely lost the original passive forms, such as in Arabic can be formed in every conjugation and in Hebrew are represented by the Pual and Hophal.