Johnston in North Carolina, the command of the whole of General Lee's cavalry devolved upon Fitzhugh Lee early in 1865, but the surrender of Appomattox followed quickly upon the opening of the campaign.
The principal battles were: the first Manassas, or Bull Run (July 21, 1861); those around Richmond (June 26-July 2, 1862); second Manassas (August 29-30); Fredericksburg (December 12, 1862); Mechanicsville (May 2 and 3, 186 3); the Wilderness (May 5 and 6); Spottsylvania (May 8); North Anna and Bethesda church (May 29-30); Cold Harbor (June 3); the battles around Petersburg (June 15, July 30 and November 1, 1864); and Five Forks (April 1) and Appomattox (April 8-9, 1865).
Among his writings are: Railroads, Their Origin and Problems (1878); Three Episodes of Massachusetts History (1892); a biography of his father, Charles Francis Adams (1900); Lee at Appomattox and Other Papers (1902); Theodore Lyman and Robert Charles Winthrop, Jr., Two Memoirs (1906); and Three Phi Beta Kappa Addresses (1907).
On the 9th the gallant remnant of the Army of northern Virginia laid down its arms at Appomattox Court House, and the Confederacy came to an end.
Here, and in the narrow neck of land between the Appomattox and the James, was the ganglion of the Confederacy, and the struggle for its possession was perhaps the greatest of modern history.
But the Union troops steadily advanced, growing in strength as they went, and a few days after Lee's surrender at Appomattox Johnston advised President Davis that it was in his opinion wrong and useless to continue the conflict, and he was authorized to make terms with Sherman.