The French prince was actually inaugurated duke of Brabant at Antwerp (February 1582) and count of Flanders at Bruges (July), but his misconduct speedily led to his withdrawal from the Netherlands, and even before the assassination of Orange (July 1584) the authority of Philip had been practically restored throughout the two provinces.
A second barrier treaty between England and the United Provinces was signed on the 30th of January 1713, and a third treaty signed at Antwerp on the 15th of November 1715 clinched the matter.
An attempted attack on Antwerp was foiled by the vigilance of the Cardinal Infant.
Line from Ghent to Louvain and Liege, as well as .for that from Antwerp to Brussels and the south, its station is one of the busiest in Belgium, and this fact has contributed to the general prosperity of the city.
The suggested origin of the name Antwerp from Hand-werpen (hand-throwing), because a mythical robber chief indulged in the practice of cutting off his prisoners' hands and throwing them into the Scheldt, appeared to Motley rather farfetched, but it is less reasonable to trace it, as he inclines to do, from an t werf (on the wharf), seeing that the form Andhunerbo existed in the 6th century on the separation of Austrasia and Neustria.
Languet died at Antwerp on the 30th of September 1581.
After the establishment of Belgian independence Antwerp was defended only by the citadel and an enceinte of about 22 m.
The Malus Intercursus on the other hand gave England some privileges which she had not before enjoyedexemption from local tolls in Antwerp and Holland, and a licence for English merchants to sell cloth retail as well as wholesalea concession which hit the Netherland small traders and middlemen very hard.
Large liners from Liverpool, Southampton, London, Hamburg, Havre and Antwerp call regularly for passengers or cargo at Leixoes or Lisbon, or both ports, on their way to and from South America (especially Brazil).
The Oligocene forms a band stretching from Antwerp to Maastricht, and this is followed towards the north by a discontinuous strip of Miocene and a fairly extensive area of Pliocene.