Structural, having reference to the form and structure of the various parts, including (a) Morphology, the study of the general form of the organs and their development - this will be treated in a series of articles dealing with the great subdivisions of plants (see Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, Pteridophyta, Bryophyta, Algae, Lichens, Fungi and Bacteriology) and the more important organs (see Stem, Leaf, RooT, Flower, Fruit); (b) Anatomy, the study of internal structure, including minute anatomy or histology (see Plants: Anatomy).
History and Bibliography.The study of plant anatomy was begun in the middle of the seventeenth century as a direct result of the construction of microscopes, with which a clear view of the structure of plant tissues could be obtained.
But these and many other contributions, 4 made until nearly the close of the 18th century, though highly meritorious, were unconnected as a whole, and it is plain that no conception of what it was in the power, of Comparative Anatomy to set forth had occurred to the most diligent dissectors.
In zoology, the mollusca are divided into cephalous and acephalous (Acephala), according as they have or have not an organized part of their anatomy as the seat of the brain and special senses.
The pursuit of the learned physician, - anatomy and physiology: exemplified by Harvey, Haller, Hunter, Johann Miller.
There he studied under Bezzuoli and Segnolini at the Accademia delle Belle Arti, and attended anatomy classes under Zanetti; but he soon returned to complete his general education at Frankfort, receiving no further direct instruction in art for five years.
Their primary object is to gratify the pleasure most persons take in viewing at close range the curious and beautiful living products of nature, but they serve also as means of instruction in natural history, providing material for museums and for investigations in comparative anatomy and pathology, while they may have a commercial value as pleasure resorts, or as show grounds for the display of animals that have been imported or bred for sale.
Cuvier may be regarded as the zoologist by whom anatomy was made the one important guide to the understanding of the relations of animals.
The inspection of the liver for purposes of divination led to the study of the anatomy of the liver, and there are indeed good reasons for believing that hepatoscopy represents the startingpoint for the study of animal anatomy in general.
PAUL GERVAIS (1816-1879), French palaeontologist, was born on the 26th of September 1816 at Paris, where he obtained the diplomas of doctor of science and of medicine, and in 1835 he began palaeontological research as assistant in the laboratory of comparative anatomy at the Museum of Natural History.