Schmidt, Elsass and Lothringen (Leip., 1859); Spach, Histoire de la basse Alsace et de la vale de Strasbourg (Stras., 1860); von Miillenheim Rechberg, Die Annexion des Elsass durch Frankreich and Rilckblick auf die Verwaltung des Landes, 1648-1697 (Stras., 1897); Du Prel, Die deutsche Verwaltung in Elsass, 1870-1879 (Stras., 1879); L.
In the beginning of the 12th century the country was divided between the two landgraviates of Upper and Lower Alsace, but to counteract the power of the nobles the emperors established in Alsace a great number of free towns.
Among them the work of Notker Labeo and of Kero, both monks of St Gall, and that of Ottfried of Weissenburg in Alsace deserve mention.
With the exception of a few streams which run to the Rhone, all the waters of Alsace flow into the Rhine.
Murat now joined the allies; Germany, Switzerland and Holland were lost to Napoleon; but when the allies began to invade Alsace and Lorraine, they found the French staunch in his support.
The total number of breweries in the beer excise district was, in 1905-1906, 5995, which produced I017 millior gallons; in Bavaria nearly 6000 breweries with 392 million gallons in Baden over 700 breweries with 68 million gallons; in WUrttem berg over 5000 breweries with 87 million gallons; and in Alsace Lorraine 95 breweries with about 29 million gallons.
The farms in Alsace are mostly small and are held partly as a private possession, partly on the communal system; in Lorraine there are some larger occupations.
Driven from Alsace by the marauding bands of Count Mansfeld, he fled to Ingolstadt where he began to study law.
Towards the further development of events in France, therefore, Leopold assumed at first a studiously moderate attitude; but his refusal to respond to the demand of the French government for the dispersal of the corps of emigres assembled under the protection of the German princes on the frontier of France, and the insistence on the rights of princes dispossessed in Alsace and Lorraine, precipitated the crisis.
Turned his attention to the ancient appanage of Lothair, Alsace and Lorraine, those lands of the north and the east whose frontiers were constantly changing, and which seemed to invite aggression.