MORPHINE, the chief alkaloid of opium, to which the medicinal action of the former is mainly due.
BIBIRINE, or Bebeerine, C19H21N03, an alkaloid obtained from the bark and fruit of the greenheart tree, Nectandra rodiaei, called bibiru or sipiri in Guiana, where the tree grows.
We also owe much of our knowledge of the alkaloid piperine to Fittig, who in collaboration with Ira Remsen established its constitution in 1871.
This constituent is the alkaloid cornutine, which is the valuable ingredient of the drug.
In consequence of the high price of the alkaloid an attempt was made some years ago by the Government of India to manufacture from cinchona bark a cheap febrifuge which should represent the alkaloids contained in the bark and form a substitute for quinine.
Calisaya, known as the calisaya of Santa Fe, was strongly recommended for cultivation, because the shoots of felled trees afford bark containing a considerable amount of quinine; C. Pitayensia has been introduced into the Indian plantations on account of yielding the valuable alkaloid quinidine, as well as quinine.
Opium is obtained from the latex of the opium poppy (Pa paver somniferum), which contains the alkaloid morphine.
Pseudopelletierine (methyl granatonine), C9H15N0, an alkaloid of the pomegranate, is a derivative of cyclo-octane, and resembles tropine in that it contains a nitrogen bridge between two carbon atoms. It is an inactive base, and also has ketonic properties.
As a free alkaloid) in the plant, but that it exists in the form of a glucoside, and that by the process of chewing this glucoside is split up by one of the ferments in the saliva into the free alkaloid and sugar.
There is some doubtful evidence of the value of the alkaloid in chorea.