Issued a bull for their extermination, and Alberto de' Capitanei, archdeacon of Cremona, put himself at the head of a crusade against them.
Besides the general works on modern Italy, see the Marquis Costa de Beauregard's interesting volumes La Jeunesse du roi Charles Albert (Paris, 1899) and Novare et Oporto (1890), based on the king's letters and the journal of Sylvain Costa, his faithful equerry, though the author's views are those of an old-fashioned Savoyard who dislikes the idea of Italian unity; Ernesto Masi's Il Segreto del Re Carlo Alberto (Bologna, 1891) is a very illuminating essay; Domenico Perrero, Gli Ultim2 Reali di Savoia (Turin, 1889); L.
Cangrande died in 1319, being succeeded by his nephew Martino, and Marsiglio soon began to meditate treachery; he negotiated with the Venetians in 1336, and in the following year he secretly introduced Venetian troops into Padua, arrested Alberto della Scala, Martino's brother, then in charge of the town, and thus regained the lordship. He died in 1338, and was succeeded by his relative Ubertino, a typical medieval tyrant, who earned an unenviable notoriety for his murders and acts of treachery, but was also a patron of the arts; he built the Palazzo dei Principi, the castle of Este, constructed a number of roads and canals, and protected commerce.
The chart of the world by Juan de la Cosa, the companion of Columbus, is the earliest extant which depicts the discoveries in the new world (150o), Nicolaus de Canerio, a Genoese, and the map which Alberto Cantino caused to be drawn at Lisbon for Hercules d'Este of Ferrara (1502), illustrating in addition the recent discoveries of the Portuguese in the East.