In the Copepoda they are agglutinated together into masses attached to the body of the female.
The phenomenon of agglutination depends essentially on the union of molecules in the bacteria - the agglutinogens - with the corresponding agglutinins, but another essential is the presence of a certain amount of salts in the fluid, as it can be shown that when agglutinated masses of bacteria are washed salt-free the clumps become resolved.
In these cases, however, the portions of the hairs behind the growing region become agglutinated together into a solid cylindrical pseudo-parenchymatous axis.
Hard, firm and compact shells with some straggling flossy filaments on the exterior, and the interior layers are so closely and densely agglutinated as to constitute a parchment-like mass which resists all attempts at unwinding.
This manna occurs in the state of agglutinated tears, and forms an object of some industry among the wandering tribes of Kurdistan.
Scouring renders all common silks, whether white or yellow in the raw, a brilliant pearly white, with a delicate soft flossy texture, from the fact that the fibres which were agglutinated in reeling, being now degummed, are separated from each other and show their individual tenuity in the yarn.
Shortly afterwards Widal and also Griinbaum showed that the serum of patients suffering from typhoid fever, even at an early stage of the disease, agglutinated the typhoid bacillus - a fact which laid the foundation of serum diagnosis.
The object of crossing (croissage) is to round, smooth and condense the separate filaments of each set into one strand, and as the surface of the filaments is gummy and adhesive it is found on drying that they have agglutinated into a compact single fibre of raw silk.
It results from this that the horn has the appearance of a mass of agglutinated hairs, which, in the newly growing part at the base, readily fray out on destruction of the softer intermediate substance; but the fibres differ from true hairs in growing from a free papilla of the derm, and not within a follicular involution of the same.
This work is partly carried out beneath the surface and partly on the surface, upon which the worms wander at night and eject the swallowed and triturated earth; frequently castings of some height are formed of coiled ropes of agglutinated particles of mould.