Against the Church of Rome, however, there was directed the affirmation that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and not from both Father and Son; this rejection of the filioque was not unwelcome to the Turks.
Bradlaugh, who had attained some notoriety for an Bradlan b aggressive atheism, claimed the right to make an affirmation of allegiance instead of taking the customary oath, which he declared was, in his eyes, a meaningless form.
The Ontological argument, though not wholly rejected as a proof, is taken rather as pointing to God's attribute of infinity; thought rather than experience making affirmation that the intuition in question must be attached to God.
No city calls itself either Guelpi or Ghibelline till it has expelled one-half of its inhabitants; for each party is resolved to constitute the state according to its own conception, and the affirmation of the, one programme is the negation of the other.
In no single act of affirmation of cause or substance, much less in such a primitive act, do we affirm the universality of their application.
It was objected that, as he had publicly declared that the words of the oath bad no clear meaning for him, he could not be permitted to take it; and after some wrangling the matter was referred to a fresh committee, which supported the view that Bradlaugh could not be allowed to be sworn, but recommended that he should be permitted to niake the affirmation at his own risk.
The affirmation that American aborigines believed in an all-pervading, omnipotent Spirit is entirely inconsistent with the very nature of the case.
Again two forms occur: (i.) modus ponendo tollens which by the affirmation of one alternative denies the other (A is either B or C; A is B; therefore it is not C: or either A is B, or C is D; A is B; therefore C is not D: or either A or B is C; A is C; therefore B is not C); (ii.) modus tollendo ponens which by the denial of the one, establishes the validity of the other alternative (A is either B or C; A is not B; therefore it is C: or either A or B is C; A is not C; therefore B is C: or either A is B, or C is D; A is not B; therefore C is D).
In (i.) a valid conclusion follows from the affirmation of the antecedent: in (ii.) from denying the consequent, but in neither case conversely.
Of late years, however, there has been a gradual assimilation of broader views by the leaders of Islam in Turkey, at any rate at Constantinople, and the revolution of 1908, and its affirmation in the spring of 1909, took place not only with their approval, but with their active assistance.