Turner; Reports of the New York Geological Survey from 1842 to 1854 (Albany); Reports of the Topographical Survey of the Adirondack Region of New York (Albany, 18731880); Reports of the New York Meteorological Bureau (1889 sqq.); and publications of the United States Weather Bureau.
The principal forest area is in the Adirondack region where the state has a forest preserve (in Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, Lewis, Oneida, St Lawrence, Saratoga, Warren and Washington counties) containing (1909) 1, 53 0, 559 acres, and there is as much or more in private preserves and in tracts owned by lumbermen.
In the Adirondack region the trees were principally white pine, spruce, hemlock and balsam, but mixed with these were some birch, maple, beech and basswood, and smaller numbers of ash and elm; in the swamps of this region were also larch and cedar.
While igneous and metamorphic crystalline rocks form the bulk of the Adirondack area, it is surrounded by a ring of ancient Palaeozoic sediments in which these peripheral lowlands have been developed.
The Adirondack Mountains .T his rugged district of northern New York may be treated as an outlier in the United States of the Laurentian highlands of Canada, from which it is separated by the St Lawrence Valley.
Other notable falls are those of the Genesee at Portage and at Rochester, Trenton Falls, the Falls of Ticonderoga, and a multitude of falls and rapids in the Adirondack region and along the shores of the upper portions of the Finger Lakes.
Lake Champlain, which lies beautifully in the valley between the Green and Adirondack mountains, belongs mostly to Vermont.
Graphite is widely distributed in the Adirondack region, but the mining of it is confined for the most part to Essex and Warren counties; in 1908 the output was 1,932,000 lb.
As Wayne county, but the mines in Essex, Clinton and Franklin counties of the Adirondack region are by far the most productive.
A remarkable feature of the belt is the longitudinal chain of broad valleys - the Great Appalachian Valley - which, in the southerly sections divides the mountain system into two subequal portions, but in the northernmost lies west of all the ranges possessing typical Appalachian features, and separates them from the Adirondack group. The mountain system has no axis of dominating altitudes, but in every portion the summits rise to rather uniform heights, and, especially in the central section, the various ridges and intermontane valleys have the same trend as the system itself.