When, however, a little later, Falkenhayn was recalled from Palestine after his complete failure there, Mustapha Kemal held a high command under Liman Pasha, and after the conquest of Palestine Mustapha Kemal took over from Liman Pasha in Adana the remnants of the Turkish forces.
Turkomans are found in the Angora and Adana vilayets; Avshars, a tribe of Turkish origin, in the valleys of Anti-Taurus; and Tatars in the Angora and Brusa vilayets; Yuruks are most numerous in the Konia vilayet.
Weight on the Turkish budget, the country through which it passeswith the exception of the sections passing from Adana to Osmanieh, through the Killis-Aleppo-Euphrates district (that is, the first point at which the line crosses the Euphrates some 600 m.
Through it ran the great highway, between the east and the west, on which stood Tarsus on the Cydnus, Adana on the Sarus, and Mopsuestia (Missis) on the Pyramus.
He at once arrested his march; but the pressure of famine in the capital, caused by the cutting off of supplies from Asia and the presence of the large Russian force, compelled Mahmud to yield, and on the 3rd of May a firman ceded Adana to Ibrahim under the pretext of appointing him muhassil, or collector of the revenue.
All Syria was lost to the sultan, and the Egyptian advance-guard passed the mountain defiles into Adana in Asia Minor.
The convention stipulated for the bestowal of the pashalik of Adana on Ibrahim; but when on the 16th he received the official list of appointments, he found that Adana had been expressly reserved by the sultan.