The invasion of Syria by Mehemet Ali in 1831 caused Beshir to desert Abdallah and throw in his lot with Ibrahim Pasha; but he was not cordially followed by the Druses in general, and had good excuse for revolt in 1839, and intrigue with the British admiral in 1840.
In the article on BABYIsM, the facts as to the life of the l3ab, Mirza Ali Mahommed of Shiraz, and the progress of the Babiist movement, are separately noticed.
He began by defeating Ali Pasha, and then penetrated into Bosnia, and captured the newly built fortress of Jajce after a long and obstinate defence (Dec. 1463).
Amid all the momentous changes the part of Ali was a difficult one.
The effectiveness of the new force was first tried in the suppression of a revolt of the Albanians in Cairo (1823) by six disciplined Sudanese regiments; after which Mehemet Ali was no more troubled with military emeutes.
When he came to the throne the empire was breaking up from within; one by one he freed the provinces from the tyrannical rulers who, like Ali of Jannina, were carving out independent, or quasi-independent, empires within the empire.
After the two first captures it was restored to Hyder Ali under treaty; after the third it was ceded to the East India Company.
Rather than subject themselves to the tyranny of Ali Pasha, the Pargiotes decided to forsake their country; and accordingly in 1819, having previously exhumed and burned the remains of their ancestors, they migrated to the Ionian Islands.
The cotton grown had been brought from the Sudan by Maho Bey, and the organization of the new industryfrom which in a few years Mehemet Ali was enabled to extract considerable revenueswas entrusted to a Frenchman named Jumel.
Men thought they were witnessing the dawn of a new era in the East; Mehemet Ali was hailed as the most beneficent and enlightened of princes; and political philosophers like Jeremy Bentham, who sent him elaborate letters of good advice, thought to find in him the means for developing their theories in virgin soil.