The Iberians still reverence as saints the Armenian doctors of the 5th century, but as early as 552 they began to resent the dictatorial methods of the Armenians, as well might a proud race of mountaineers who never wholly lost their political independence; and they broke off their allegiance to the Armenian see very soon afterwards, accepted Chalcedon and joined the Byzantine church.
The O'Neills, always opposed to the English, had forfeited every baronial right; but in 1552 Hugh O'Neill of Clandeboye promised allegiance to the reigning monarch, and obtained the castle of Carrickfergus, the town and fortress of Belfast, and all the surrounding lands.
He resided at Cambridge, teaching and taking occasional duty until the accession of George I., when his conscience forbade him to take the oaths of allegiance to the new government and of abjuration of the Stuarts.
On the 6th or 7th of June Mary and Bothwell took refuge in Borthwick Castle, twelve miles from the capital, where the fortress was in the keeping of an adherent whom the diplomacy of Sir James Melville had succeeded in detaching from his allegiance to Bothwell.
Thence he marched into Fars and Kirman, where he maintained peace and kept the inhabitants in their allegiance to Ali.
Allied himself with Liudprand, the Lombard king, threw off allegiance to Byzantium, and established the autonomy of Rome.
In August he was forced to sign a further declaration, confessing his own wickedness in dealing with the Irish, his father's blood-guiltiness, his mother's idolatry, and his abhorrence of prelacy, besides ratifying his allegiance to the covenants and to Presbyterianism.
He was a member of the Quebec Legislature from 1897; and, after holding minor offices, in 1905-20 was Prime Minister and Attorney-General in the province of Quebec. Attempts were made by Sir Robert Borden to get him to join his Coalition Ministry, but these failed, and subsequently Sir Lomer declared his allegiance to the Liberal Opposition.
In 1904 the province was organized for administration on the same system as the rest of Northern Nigeria, and the reigning emir took the oath of allegiance to the British crown.
The whole of the Prussian military system, inciuding not only the obligation to military service, but the rules for recruiting, organization, drill and uniforms, has to be followed in all the states; all the contingents are under the command of the emperor, and the soldiers have to swear obedience to him in addition to the oath of allegiance to their own sovereign.