This led to the disappearance of the agri cultural population, to a decline in public safety, and to the spread of malaria in many parts; indeed, it is quite possible that it was not introduced into Latium before the 4th century B.C. The evil increased in the later period of the Republic, and many of the old towns of Latium sank into a very decayed condition; with this the continual competition of the provinces as sources of food-supply no doubt had a good deal to do.
The expenses in a rural parish are defrayed by means of a rate raised with, and as part of, the poor rate, with a qualification to the effect that agri cultural land, market gardens and nursery grounds are to be assessed to the rate at one-third only of their rateable value.
The chief rivers are the Sele (Silarus) - joined by the Negro (Tanager) and Calore (Calor)- on the west, and the Bradano (Bradanus), Basiento (Casuentus), Agri (Aciris), Sinni (Siris) on the east, which flow into the gulf of Taranto; to the south of the last-named river there are only unimportant streams flowing into the sea east and west, inasmuch as here the width of the peninsula diminishes to some 40 m.
Among other provincial agencies for Agri imparting information there are farmers' institutes, cultural travelling dairies, live-stock associations, farmers', dairymen's, seed-growers', and fruit-growers' associa- tions tions, and agricultural and horticultural societies.