ENRICO COSENZ (1812-1898), Italian soldier, was born at Gaeta, on the 12th of January 1812.
Viewed from the river it makes a somewhat gloomy, though picturesque, impression, with its parish church (a basilica dating from the 12th century, with four towers), the round watch-tower on the Rhine, old walls in places 15 ft.
Moreover, after the knight's liability to personal service in war had been modified in the 12th century by the scutage system, it became necessary in the first quarter of the r3th to compel landowners to take up the knighthood which in theory they should have coveted as an honour - a compulsion which was soon systematically enforced (Distraint of Knighthood, 1278), and became a recognized source of royal income.
Taylor, Republican, was inaugurated governor on the 12th of December, but the legislative committee on contests decided in favour of the Democrats.
Is the only Jewish scribe whose name is mentioned in the New Testament he became a subject of Christian legend, and a monk of the 12th century (Hermann the Premonstratensian) relates how he met Jews in Worms studying Gamaliel's commentary on the Old Testament, thereby most probably meaning the Talmud.
MICHAEL GLYCAS, Byzantine historian (according to some a Sicilian, according to others a Corfiote), flourished during the 12th century A.D.
His family had held a good position in Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire since the 12th century, the name appearing as Sent Cheveroll in the roll of Battle Abbey, and William inherited large estates from his father.
On the 12th of November 12 t 6 the regent William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, reissued the charter in the name of the young king Henry III.
Two special kinds of orders arose out of the religious wars waged by Christendom against the Mahommedans in the Holy Land and in Spain: (r) the Military orders: the Knights Hospitallers of St John and the Knights Templars, both at the beginning of the 12th century, and the Teutonic Knights at its close; (2) the orders of Ransom, whose object was to free Christian prisoners and slaves from captivity under the Mahommedans, the members being bound by vow even to offer themselves in exchange; such orders were the Trinitarians founded in 1198, and the order of Our Lady of Ransom (de Mercede), founded by St Peter Nolasco in 1223; both were under the Augustinian rule.
St Martin's, built between the 10th and 12th centuries, has a fine baptistery; St Gereon's, built in the 11th century on the site of a Roman rotunda, is noted for its mosaics, and glass and oil-paintings; the Minorite church, begun in the same year as the cathedral, contains the tomb of Duns Scotus.