a method of carrying on business of government by means of departments or bureaus each underneath the control over a chief in contradiction to a system in which the officers of federal government have an associated authority and duty also government conducted about this system
- nonelective federal government officials
- a government that is administered primarily by bureaus being staffed with nonelective officials
- any business where activity is obstructed by insistence on unneeded treatments and red-tape
- A system of carrying-on the company of federal government by way of departments or bureaus, each beneath the control over a chief, in contradiction to something in which the officers of federal government have an linked authority and obligation; in addition, government carried out on this system.
- Government officials, collectively.
system when the business of federal government is carried on in divisions, each in control over a chief, in contradistinction from a method where officers of government have a coordinate expert.
1818, from French bureaucratie, coined by French economist Jean Claude Marie Vincent de Gournay (1712-1759) on type of democratie, aristocratie, from bureau "office," literally "desk" (see bureau) + Greek suffix -kratia denoting "power of" (see -cracy). That vast net-work of administrative tyranny ... that system of bureaucracy, which simply leaves no free agent in every France, aside from the man at Paris just who pulls the cables. [J.S. Mill, "Westminster Review" XXVIII, 1837] bureaucrat, &c. The development is indeed barbarous that most effort at self-respect in pronunciation may possibly too be abandoned. [Fowler]
A system of management distinguished by its (1) clear hierarchy of authority, (2) rigid division of labor, (3) written and rigid guidelines, regulations, and treatments, and (4) impersonal interactions. As soon as instituted, bureaucracies are hard to dislodge or transform. See additionally Parkinson's Law and Peter Principle.
(n.) A method of carrying-on business of government in the form of divisions or bureaus, each under the control over a chief, in contradiction to a system where officers of government have actually an associated expert and obligation; additionally, government carried out on this system.
- (n.) Government officials, collectively.
In every country the bureaucracy is abused, with more or less reason, for Unprogressiveness, timidity and red-tape, and Italy is no exception to the rule.