meaning of -en

-en meaning in Etymology Dictionary

word-forming element making verbs (eg darken, weaken) from adjectives or nouns, from Old English -nian, from Proto-Germanic *-inojan (also source of Old Norse -na), from PIE adjectival suffix *-no-. Many active in Middle English.

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  • suffix included with nouns to produce adjectives indicating "made of, of the nature of" (eg fantastic, oaken, woolen), corresponding to Latin -anus, -inus, Greek -inos; from Proto-Germanic *-ina-, from PIE *-no-, adjectival suffix. Popular in Old and center English (e.g. fyren "on fire; manufactured from fire"), the few surviving utilizes tend to be largely discarded in everyday use, and easy type of the noun increases as adjective (gold ring, wool sweater). Most are found in special contexts (brazen, wood).

-en meaning in General Dictionary

A suffix from AS. -an, previously regularly develop the plural of manyu000du000a nouns, such as ashen, eyen, oxen, all obs. except oxen. Oftentimes,u000du000a eg kids and brethren, it's been put into older plural kinds.

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  • A suffix corresponding to AS. -en and -on, formerly familiar with form the plural of verbs, like in housen, escapen.
  • A suffix signifying to produce, to cause, always develop verbs from nouns and adjectives; like in enhance, quicken, frighten. This must never be confused with -en matching in Old English towards the like. infinitive closing -an.
  • An adjectival suffix, meaning made from; as with golden, leaden, wooden.
  • The termination of the past participle of many powerful verbs; because, in broken, gotten, trodden.

-en meaning in General Dictionary

A suffix from AS. -an, formerly used to form the plural of many nouns, like in ashen, eyen, oxen, all obs. except oxen. In some cases, such as for instance kids and brethren, it has been put into older plural types.

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  • A suffix corresponding to AS. and -on, formerly always form the plural of verbs, like in housen, escapen.
  • A suffix signifying in order to make, resulting in, regularly develop verbs from nouns and adjectives; as with enhance, quicken, frighten. This must not be confused with matching in Old English towards like. infinitive closing -an.
  • An adjectival suffix, indicating manufactured from; like in golden, leaden, wooden.
  • The termination of the past participle of many strong verbs; since, in broken, gotten, trodden.